# More Vectors¶

Let’s look at some more ways we can work with vectors.

## Initializing¶

We can initialize a vector when we declare it. The following creates a vector with 5 elements, all initialized to 0:

vector<double> container(5, 0.0);


Notice that we are using () here instead of {}. As we’ll see later, this means that we are calling a function here to do the initialization (the constructor).

Here we instead initialize a vector by telling it the values of each of the elements:

vector<double> container2{10.0, 20.0, 30.0};


## Size¶

We can always get the number of elements in a vector via the size() function:

vector<int> int_vec{1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

int nlen = int_vec.size();


try it…

We saw that we access an element via []. What happens if we access the vector out of bounds?

## Bounds, iterators, and pointers¶

There are 2 ways to access the beginning and end of a vector:

• .cbegin(), .begin() : these will give you an interator that points to the first element. The difference is that accessing with .cbegin() will not allow you to modify the vector (the c is for const). You can increment an iterator loop over the contents of the vector.

• .cend(), .end() : these will return an iterator that points to one past the last element.

An iterator can be thought of as a special type of pointer – a topic that we will discuss much more later. Iterators have restrictions on their use, depending on the container – this makes them more safe to use.

If we think about an iterator like:

auto it = container.cbegin();


Then we can access the next element in container by incrementing the iterator, it++.

If we want to see the value in container that the iterator is pointing to, then we need to dereference it – this is done with the * operator:

std::cout << "cbegin is " << *it << std::endl;


These can also be used in some powerful algorithms provided by the algorithms header. Here’s an example of using find on a vector:

Listing 4 find_example.cpp
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>

int main() {

std::vector<int> container{100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600};

// search through the entire vector to find the first instance of the
// element "400"

auto pos = std::find(container.cbegin(), container.cend(), 400);

std::cout << "element found: " << *pos << std::endl;

// output the remaining elements after the one we searched for

for (auto it = pos+1; it < container.cend(); ++it) {
std::cout << *it << std::endl;
}
}


Note

A nice overview of the different algorithms that work on the standard C++ containers is provided by “hacking C++”: C++ Standard Library Algorithms

## Inserting¶

We saw that .push_back() is used to add an element to the end of a vector. To insert in the middle of the vector, we use .insert(it_pos), where it_pos is an iterator pointing to the element in the vector we want to insert in front of. (Note: insert() can actually allow you to insert multiple elements by specifying an additional argument.)

Here’s an example: we start with a vector with the elements 100, 200, 300 and then use insert() to put 150 in between 100 and 200.

Listing 5 insert_example.cpp
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>

int main() {

std::vector<int> int_vec{100, 200, 300};

auto it = std::find(int_vec.cbegin(), int_vec.cend(), 200);

int_vec.insert(it, 150);

for (auto e : int_vec) {
std::cout << e << std::endl;
}

}


## Erasing¶

Erasing works similar to inserting. We give an iterator pointing to the start and end of the range we want to erase, and all elements up to, but not including the end, are erased.

The end point being exclusive rather than inclusive is consistent with .end() returning an iterator that points one-past the end of the vector.

Here’s an example that removes the first 4 elements of a vector.

What happens if we try to remove past the end? To be save, we should always add a check on whether our end is past .end().

Listing 6 vector_erase.cpp
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>

int main() {

std::vector<int> int_vec{-1, 10, 2, 4, 6, 19, -100, 2, 4};

std::cout << "initial vector: ";
for (auto e : int_vec) {
std::cout << e << " ";
}
std::cout << std::endl;

auto it = int_vec.begin();

int_vec.erase(it, it+4);

std::cout << "updated vector: ";
for (auto e : int_vec) {
std::cout << e << " ";
}
std::cout << std::endl;

}


try it…

What happens if you use .cbegin() and/or .cend() instead .begin() and .end()?

Remember that the c in those functions is for const – it provides read-only access to the elements through the iterator.

## Resize and clear¶

If we have an existing vector we can resize it with .resize(num, init) where num is the number of new elements and (optionally) init is their initial value.

We can remove everything from the vector using .clear(). Here’s an example:

Listing 7 resize_example.cpp
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>

int main() {

std::vector<double> container{0.0, 1.0, 2.0};

std::cout << "current contents: ";

for (auto e : container) {
std::cout << e << " ";
}

std::cout << std::endl;

container.resize(10, 0.0);

std::cout << "new contents: ";

for (auto e : container) {
std::cout << e << " ";
}

std::cout << std::endl;

container.clear();

std::cout << "after clear: ";

for (auto e : container) {
std::cout << e << " ";
}

std::cout << std::endl;

}


## Sorting¶

try it…

Let’s try to understand how the sort function works. https://www.cplusplus.com/reference/algorithm/sort/