## Simulations of X-ray Bursts

### Flame spreading in X-ray bursts

We are using Castro to model the flame spreading across the surface of the neutron star. Our simulations resolve the burning front and the Rossby length (the scale where the Coriolis force and lateral spreading balance), allowing us to model the development and propagation of realistic flames moving through the neutron star atmosphere. Realistic nuclear reaction networks and conductivities are used.

Our goal of these studies is to learn how fast these flames can acceleration, understand any multidimensional effects that might help explain burst oscillations, and to explore the nucleosynthesis.

Our results are described in the following papers:

*Dynamics of Laterally Propagating Flames in X-Ray Bursts. I. Burning Front Structure*, Eiden, Kiran, Zingale, Michael, Harpole, Alice, Willcox, Donald, Cavecchi, Yuri, & Katz, Max P. 2020, ApJ, 894, 1, 6*Dynamics of Laterally Propagating Flames in X-Ray Bursts. II. Realistic Burning & Rotation*, Harpole, A., Ford, N. M., Eiden, K., Zingale, M., Willcox, D. E., Cavecchi, Y., & Katz, M. P. 2021, ApJ, 912, 36*Comparing Early Evolution of Flames in X-ray Bursts in Two and Three Dimensions*, Zingale, M. Eiden, K., & Katz, M. 2023, ApJ, 952, 160*Sensitivity of He Flames in X-ray Bursts to Nuclear Physics*, Chen, Zhi, Zingale, Michael, & Eiden, Kiran, 2023, ApJ, 955, 128*Simulating Lateral H/He Flame Propagation in Type I X-ray Bursts*, Johnson, Eric T. & Zingale, Michael, 2024, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2742, 1, p. 012005

### Convection in X-ray bursts

We are modeling mixed H/He X-ray bursts with our low Mach number hydrodynamics code Maestro. The nucleosynthesis is described by a 10-nuclei network that approximates hot-CNO, 3-alpha, and rp-process breakout. These simulations are done in a plane-parallel geometry, with a 6 cm resolution. These calculations follow on from our initial pure He simulations. Our goal is to understand how a multi-dimensional treatment of the convection alters the nucleosynthesis.

Our results are described in the following papers:

*Multidimensional Modeling of Type I X-ray Bursts. I. Two-Dimensional Convection Prior to the Outburst of a Pure He Accretor*, Malone, C. M., Nonaka, A. J., Almgren, A. S., Bell, J. B., & Zingale, M., 2011, ApJ, 728, 118*Multidimensional Modeling of Type I X-ray Bursts. II. Two-Dimensional Convection in a Mixed H/He Accretor*, Malone, C. M., Zingale, M., Nonaka, A., Almgren, A. S., & Bell, J. B., 2014, ApJ, 788, 115*Comparisons of Two- and Three-Dimensional Convection in Type I X-ray Bursts*, Zingale, M., Malone, C. M., Nonaka, A., Almgren, A. S., & Bell, J. B., 2015, ApJ, 807, 60

Here's a model of the three-dimensional convection: